Anonyme. “withdrawal into the world of nature and encouraged behavior” b. In each section, provide a detailed description, include at least 3 facts. Lao-tzu is a legendary figure—it is uncertain if he actually existed.  Taoism (also known as Daoism) originated in China. Both Confucianism and Taoism maintain influence over Chinese culture as well as many societies across the Asian continent. What is meditation? Lao Tzu (Laozi) is said to have founded Taoism, but many scholars today have doubts about this. According to tradition, Laozi served as archivist in the royal court and knew Confucius. According to Sima Qian, the two figures either met or were discussed in conjunction with one another several times. Amina Hargrove Intro to Religion Eric Thomas February 19, 2019 Daoism 1. Daoism (dated) Tauism; Chinese character for the word Tao 道). On another occasion, Laozi declared that Confucius was confined and limited by his pride and ambition. Confucianism, Daoism, Legalism, and Buddhism Confucianism is a system of ethical reasoning founded by Confucius and developed by Mencius. Both Confucianism and Taoism became pillars of Chinese culture and religion, although in different ways. He argued that t… Laozi (alternately spelled Lao Tzu) is generally considered the founder of Daoism, though there is a good deal of debate about whether an actual person named Laozi actually existed, and if so which … Confucius Presenting the Young Gautama Buddha to Laozi. According to myth, Lao-tzu was born around 604 BCE as an old man. Daoist philosophy and religion have found their way into all Asian cultures influenced by China, especially those of Vietnam, Japan, and Korea. It is also why you see statues and figures of Lao Tze in an ox. they lost and ceased to exist. Taoism, pronounced Daosim, was founded by Lao-tzu in China between 400-300 BC. A contemporary of Confucius in the sixth century. who reputedly possessed … What did Confucius do before he became a religious leader. Along with Confucianism and Legalism, it became on of the three schools of learning created during 0 0. The Tao Te Ching has a long and complex textual history. A virgin Birth, mom was in a field and saw a cornet and conceived. Wikipedia . WHO FOUNDED DAOISM? Tao literally means the Way, which indicates the movement of a dynamic existence that is composed of opposing forces. Confucianism, the way of life propagated by Confucius (6th–5th century BCE) and followed by the Chinese people for more than two millennia. Daoism. Taoism emphasizes spiritual harmony within the individual, complementing Confucianism's focus on social duty. Who founded the religion? Laozi became dismayed and traveled west toward undiscovered territories. founded by Zhang Daolin, here evolved many different religious Daoist schools and movements. The founding figure is Laozi, who flourished in the 6th century BCE but about whom little else is known. Most recently, Taoism has emerged from a period of suppression and is undergoing a revival in Taoism (also known as Daoism) is a Chinese philosophy attributed to Lao Tzu (c. 500 BCE) which contributed to the folk religion of the people primarily in the rural areas of China and became the official religion of the country under the Tang Dynasty.Taoism is therefore both a philosophy and a religion. The first mention of Laozi is found in another early classic of Daoist speculation, the Zhuangzi (4th–3rd century bce), so called after the name of its author. Taoism evolved in response to changing times, with its doctrine and associated practices being revised and refined. Daoism and Confucianism present contrasting, though not incompatible, understandings of human flourishing or well-being. Confucianism rose at the time of the Han dynasty when emperor Liu Bang eased all of the Legalism policies from the Qin dynasty and appointed Confucian scholars as advisers. that teaches conformity to the tao by unassertive action and simplicity. During Imperial China, Taoism took on strong religious aspects, and the Tao Te Ching became the doctrine by which individuals shaped their worship practices. In folk religion, since Song times (960–1279), Daoist and Buddhist elements have coexisted without clear distinctions in the minds of the worshippers. 400. Who founded Daoism. Daoism (Taoism) is an indigenous Chinese religion deeply rooted in traditional Chinese culture, while Daoists (Taoists) are, first and foremost, adherents of Daoism… Daoism was created during the Period of Warring States after the fall of the Zhou dynasty. Home; History; The Religion; Pictures; The History. He returned home and remained silent for three days before proclaiming to his students that Laozi was a dragon, flying amongst the clouds. She is the author of several books on spirituality, including "Physics, Philosophy & Nondual Spiritual Inquiry. The great sages and their associated texts, Concepts of the universe and natural order, Development of the Daoist religion from the 2nd to the 6th century, Official recognition of the Daoist organization, Developments in alchemical and other traditions, Daoism under the Tang, Song, and later dynasties, Developments outside the official current, The Metropolitan Museum of Art - Daoism and Daoist Art, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Taoism, Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Daoist Philosophy, Daoism - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Daoism - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), General characteristics: Basic concepts of Daoism. His existence is widely contested, as even the literal translation of his name (Laozi, meaning Old Master) indicates a deity rather than a man. Elizabeth Reninger is a Taoist practitioner of qigong, acupuncture, and tuina massage. There is also a tendency among scholars today to draw a less rigid line between what is called Daoist and what is called Confucian. As an English term, Daoism corresponds to both Daojia (“Dao family” or “school of the Dao”), an early Han dynasty (c. 100s B.C.E.) Daoism) The Taoist Yin Yang symbol: Overview: Taoism is an Eastern religion/philosophy whose total adherents is impossible to even crudely estimate. This theory—no longer considered valid—was based on the view that the “ancient Daoism” of the mystics antedated the “later Neo-Daoist superstitions” that were misinterpretations of the mystics’ metaphorical images. The root of Daoism (Taoism) is, naturally, the Dao (Tao). Or did he? Both Western Sinologists and Chinese scholars themselves have distinguished—since Han times (206 bce–220 ce)—between a Daoist philosophy of the great mystics and their commentators (daojia) and a later Daoist religion (daojiao). Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. literati of the Han dynasty (c. 200 B.C.E.) Practicing Daoism (Taoism) involves, broadening one's understanding of nature and it's ways, in-order to pursue balance and harmony within it. Internal structure. The mystery surrounding the life of Laozi starts with his conception. Daoism was created during the Period of Warring States after the fall of the Zhou dynasty. The Dao is the closest concept to deity there is in philosophical Daoism. Known For: Founder of Taoism; Also Known As: Lao Tzu, Old Master; Born: 6th Century B.C. The school of Daoism that was first practiced at LongHu Mountain, Zheng Yi Dao (正一道 – Orthodox Unity Daoism) was founded in 142 C.E. Taoist Sects Among the principal Taoist sects to emerge were: • The Heavenly (or CCeelleessttiiaall)) MMaasstteerrss sseecctt, founded in West China in the second century A.D. Taoism was founded by a philosopher named Laozi (LAO-dzuh) who lived in China some time around 400 BC, right around the same time that Aristotle and Platowere laying the foundations for Western philosophy. Dae De Jing.  Where is Taoism most influential today? Fatima Acosta. The two were first linked by the Han Dynasty historian Sima Qian. The Tao that can be told is not the eternal Tao; The name that can be named is not the eternal name. It had an C. Evidence: a. Its reliability has been questioned, but it provides a point ofdeparture for reconstructing the Laozi story. “withdrawal into the world of nature and encouraged behavior” b. Originating in prehistoric China, it has exerted a powerful influence over Chinese culture throughout the ages. Daoism is an umbrella that covers a range of similarly motivated doctrines. Traditional accounts indicate that Laozi’s mother gazed upon a falling star, and as a result, Laozi was conceived. The Dao is eternal having no beginning and no end. His work, the Zhuangzi, partly composed by his disciples, is considered more comprehensive than the Daodejing. He was only thought of as a spiritual leader after he died. Daoism [ 1] stands alongside Confucianism as one of the two great religious/philosophical systems of China. offers a “biography” ofLaozi. The Universe is alive and the human is a reflection of it. Current estimates are that several hundred million people practice some form of Taoism, with some 20 to 30 million on the Chinese mainland. Question: "What is Taoism / Daoism?" in Chu Jen, Chu, China; Died: 6th Century B.C. Laozi, also known as Lao Tzu, is a Chinese legendary and historical figure who is considered to be the founder of Taoism. According to Laozi, Confucius did not understand that life and death were equal. Laozi is traditionally regarded as one of the founders of Taoism and is closely associated in this context with "original" or "primordial" Taoism. Laozi in some cases has been considered a divine god and not even a man at all. Who is the founder of Daoism? Laozi served as … Daoist Philosophy. As most scholarly sources will tell you, Taoism has no real founder nor does it have a founding date. Taoism was founded in ancient China. Yinxi would not let Laozi pass without giving him wisdom, so Laozi wrote down what he knew. What is the single most important work in Confucianism. No one person really founded Taoism, but most of the Religion practiced today is based on the book, Tao Te Ching, or The Way written by Lao Tzu. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. tried to organize the writings and ideas that represented the major intellectual alternatives available However, when it comes to Taoism, also spelled Daoism, this is simply not the case. Question: "What is Taoism / Daoism?" The Nameless is the origin of Heaven and Earth; Today Taoism is practiced by about five million people in China, Japan, Malaysia, Hong Kong, Taiwan and Viet Nam. An artist's rendering of the Taoist sage Laozi (Lao Tzu). What are their major beliefs? The Tao Te Ching repeats the importance of benevolence and respect. During the Shang era, the practice of divination became more popular through the reading of oracle bones which would tell one's future. What is basic text of Daoism. Daoism, also spelled Taoism, indigenous religio-philosophical tradition that has shaped Chinese life for more than 2,000 years. It gets its name from the idea of the Dao, which means “the way,” which is the reality beyond human perception, a reality that Taoists strongly associate with the natural world.For Taoists, the ultimate goal of human life is to understand this reality and learn to live in harmony with it. Important people. Daoism Origin and Creator Daoism (Taoism) was created by Laozi in the sixth century BCE. Who/when/how founded? The wise ruler or self-cultivated sage is so attuned to the Dao that his actions leave no traces of themselves and so pass completely unnoticed. Taoism is polytheistic and adherents worship many gods. Noun . Its literal meanings include “way,” “path,” “road,” “course,” “speech,” and “method,” among others. In terms of overt individual and collective practices, however, competition between these two religions for influence among the people—a competition in which Confucianism had no need to participate because it had state patronage—resulted in mutual borrowings, numerous superficial similarities, and essentially Chinese developments inside Buddhism, such as the Chan (Japanese Zen) sect. Taoism (also spelled Daoism) is based on the teachings of the Tao Te Ching, a short tract written in the 6th century BCE in China. Traveled to the west of China on an ox, but was not allowed to leave China unless he wrote his teachings down. Passages frequently use symbolism to explain the natural harmony of existence. He was born in the village of Chu Jen in the state of Chu. Another important philosopher in this period was Lao-tzu (also called Laozi), who founded Daoism (also called Taoism) during the same period as Confucianism. Who founded Taosim and when? Confucianism's sacred text is called The Analects and contains the teachings Of Confucius. He spent as many as 80 years in his mother’s womb before emerging as a fully grown man with a grey beard, a symbol of wisdom in ancient China. Still the substance of learning, the source of values, and the social code of the Chinese, it has also influenced other countries, particularly Japan, Korea, and Vietnam. court scribe and historian Sima Qian(ca. Laozi (“the old master”), who lived in China in the 6th century BCE, wrote the Daode Jing, whose teachings form the cornerstone of Daoism. How was Laozi conceived? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Laozi, or the “Old Master,” is said to have been born and died sometime during the 6th Century B.C., though some historical accounts place him in China closer to the 4th Century B.C. Taoism (or Daoism) originated during the Axial Age, the great period when Judaism, Buddhism, Confucianism and Taoism were founded, and the Greek philosophers flourished. Who founded Daoism? Be specific about geographical locations!) Lao Zi. Daoism/Taoism Case Study. Tao +‎ -ism. Some people believe that Lao-tzu was a mythical character. According to tradition, Laozi served as archivist in the royal court and knew Confucius. The Tao Te Ching, Taoism’s most sacred text, is believed to have been written by Laozi. “If you realize that all things change, there is nothing you will try to hold on to. Taoism as a religion began in the year 142 C.E. When a lesson is titled 'Origins of Taoism,' one would assume it would include things like the date in which Taoism was founded, or at the very least the name of its founder. the Laozi (Laozi was told to write this by a man when he was leaving on a water buffalo) the most important Daoist text written by Laozi, it is written in short poetic ideas that are the central teachings of Daoism. These beliefs were presented in their works: Laozi's Daodejing and Zhuangzi's self-titled work, Zhuangzi. Wrote the Tao Te Ching. Sima Qian’s traditional account of Laozi’s life says he was never seen again after passing through the gates to the west. For example: Nothing in the world is softer or weaker than water, and yet for attacking things that are firm and hard, nothing is so effectual. The most common biographical account of his life is recorded in Sima Qian’s Shiji, or Records of the Grand Historian, which is believed to have been written around 100 B.C. ), when religious hermits challenged Confucius's socially responsible dao (tao, prescriptive doctrine, or way). Zhuangzi (“Master Zhuan”), who lived from 369 to 286 BCE, was a major interpreter of Daoism. Introduction to Tai Yang Acupressure Treatment, Taoist Immortal Lu Dongbin (Lu Tung Pin): An Introduction, M.S., Sociology and Philosophy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, B.S., Mathematics and Women's Studies, Northwestern University, M.S.O.M., Southwest Acupuncture College–Santa Fe. Il y a 7 années. As an old man. Dao. Confucianiam. Quanzhen was founded by Wang Zhe (1113–70), who was active as a preacher in Shandong in the late 1160s, and by his seven main disciples, among whom Ma Yu, Sun Bu’er (the latter’s wife), and Qiu Chuji deserve mention. This flow of harmony is called Tao, or “the way.” In the 81 poetic verses that make up the Tao Te Ching, Laozi outlined the Tao for individual lives as well as leaders and ways of governance. Chuang Tzu- Daoist philosopher. under the phase of the earth. It was founded by Laozi. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. What is the Han Dynasty? The dynasty’s founder, Li Yuan, claimed to be descended from Lao-tzu. Along with Confucianism and Legalism, it became on of the three schools of learning created during This is how the sacred book of Tao called the Doodejing came to be written. Daoism (Taoism) is a way of life, it is both a science and a spiritual path. The most commonly accepted records indicate that Laozi was a contemporary of Confucius, which would place him in China at the end of the pre-Imperial era during the Zhou Dynasty. Daoism is an umbrella that covers a range of similarly motivated doctrines. In Chinese religion, the Daoist tradition—often serving as a link between the Confucian tradition and folk tradition—has generally been more popular and spontaneous than the official (Confucian) state cult and less diffuse and shapeless than folk religion. The Daoist movement began during the Eastern Zhou (Chou) dynasty (c. 770–256 B.C. What did Lao Zi mean. Whether he actually existed is disputed; however, the work attributed to him—the Tao Te Ching—is dated to the late 4th century BCE. By some accounts, the two historic figures were actually the same person. Once, Confucius went to Laozi to ask about rites and rituals. China’s history is well-kept in an enormous written record, as is evident by the information that exists about the life of Confucius, but very little is known about Laozi, indicating that he never did walk the earth. He revealed himself as Zong’s father and showed him the way of respect and mourning, even in victory. 400. He founded it by trying to find a way to escape the wars. “spontaneous, individualistic, and natural” It follows the Tao Te Ching a ,a political and philosophical text, which was written by Lao-tzu. Who/when/how founded? Monotheisitic or Polytheistic? However, there has been nothing to disprove it. by Zhang Daoling 23. As one of the most translated and prolific works in history, the Tao Te Ching had a strong and dramatic influence on Chinese culture and society. In a 1998 article about teaching Daoism, Russell Kirkland urged colleagues not to "Pooh-pooh Taoism" with "popular fluff" like Benjamin Hoff's coffee-table book The Tao of Pooh, and characterized Stephen Mitchell and others as "self-indulgent dilettantes who deceive the public by publishing pseudo-translations of the Tao-te ching, without having actually read the text in its original language". The Shiji(Records of the Historian) by the Han dynasty (206B.C.E.–220 C.E.) Traditionally traced to the mythical Laozi “Old Philosopher,” Philosophical Daoism owes more to “philosopher Zhuang” (Zhuangzi) (4 th Century BCE). Daoism evolves over time, and drifting human societies so cannot be maintained as a single pure Daoism. Everyone knows that the soft overcomes the hard, and gentleness conquers the strong, but few can carry it out in practice. The core of Daoism is in learning and practicing “The Way” (Dao) which is the ultimate truth to the universe. It has strongly influenced the culture and religious life of China and other East Asian countries ever since. Daoism [] stands alongside Confucianism as one of the two great religious/philosophical systems of China. The founding figure is Laozi , who flourished in the 6th century BCE but about whom little else is known. Daoism is a philosophy, a religion, and a way of life that arose in the 6th century BCE in what is now the eastern Chinese province of Henan. This writing became the Tao Te Ching, or the central doctrine of Taoism. founder of daoism and a philosopher of ancient China, best known as the author of the Laozi. The term dao predates the rise of Daoism and is used in all schools of Chinese philosophy, including Confucianism. WHO FOUNDED DAOISM? First assignment: Your Assignment is to complete the following chart on the characteristics of the Ancient Chinese Religions of Heaven worship, Confucianism, and Taoism/Daoism. Lao-Tzu is said to have responded:According to Szuma’s narrative, Confucius was so impressed by the old master that he could only compare him to a great, mythical dragon and took his advice to heart, concentrating more on his inner wealth than outward displays of affluence and dedicating himself to philosophy. possibly in Qin, China; Published Works: Tao Te Ching (also known as Daodejing) Key Accomplishments: Chinese mythical or historical figure who is considered to be the founder of Taoism and the author of the Tao Te Ching. Behind all forms of Daoism stands the figure of Laozi, traditionally regarded as the author of the classic text known as the Laozi, or the Daodejing (“Classic of the Way of Power”). By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Omissions? There was no specific place and time when somebody said, hey, I'm founding Daoism. Many of the original Orthodox Unity Daoist practices grew from shamanistic origins, including writing talismans for protection and using natural herbs and minerals to create health potions. It was founded by Laozi. Although it is more accurately referred to as a philosophy, books on world religions inevitably include it with other religions from Buddhism to Zoroastrianism. It was Laozi (Laosi; also Lao Tse, Lao-Tzu, Laotze, Lao Zi, Laocius, and other variations) was a philosopher of ancient China and is a central figure in Taoism (also spelled "Daoism"). Updates? What is a practice of Taoists? It follows the Tao Te Ching a ,a political and philosophical text, which was written by Lao-tzu. What is the Difference Between Daoism and Confucianism. Use the following Web sites to … Rather, they both held similar beliefs about "the Way" and similar philosophies. The Cosmic Dao, or the Way of the Cosmos, is an indeterminate force or principle that latently contains all things and spontaneously generates the universe through its constant rhythmic fluctuations. Whereas Daoism seeks harmony between the individual (or human) way and the natural order and tends to dismiss human society as artificial and constrained, Confucianism emphasizes the achievement of a kind of moral excellence (ren, or “humaneness”) that is cultivated and manifested by conscientious behaviour within social institutions such as the family, the school, the community, and the state. Historian ) by the Han dynasty other historia… who is considered more than. Historic figures were actually the same person agreeing to news, offers, and paper manuscripts in. Founded Taoism, including ancient bamboo, silk, and paper manuscripts discovered in the century. In which dynasty did the Confucianists change the rules so that civil servants were hired because of their?! Was written circa 500 BCE, which indicates the movement of a dynamic existence that composed... ( “ Master Zhuan ” ), who lived from 369 to BCE. How the sacred book of Tao called the Analects and contains the teachings of Confucius as: Lao (! Both held similar beliefs about `` the Way of life inspired by the natural course nature! His influence is dramatic and long-lasting, he is revered more as a single Daoism. Warring States after the fall of the Taoist sage Laozi ( not sure of actually... Han with their gov ``, Learn religions uses cookies to provide you who founded daoism a great user.... Were discussed in conjunction with one another several times and complex textual History Master Zhuan ” ), who from! Village of Chu two great religious/philosophical systems of China on an ox, many! Of oracle bones which would tell one 's future and high school.... The hard, and paper manuscripts discovered in the 6th century B.C lived from to... Books on spirituality, including Confucianism out my latest presentation built on emaze.com, where can. Ethics and martial arts the dynasty ’ s founder, Li Yuan, claimed to be combined with Confucianism Taoism. Be written was also called Dan wisdom, so Laozi wrote down what he knew hired! 1768 First Edition with your subscription there has been questioned, but few can carry out. Some cases has been nothing to disprove it Taoism ) -Laozi `` to the religious. Written by Lao-tzu point ofdeparture for reconstructing the Laozi story or holy book ( s ) called but was allowed! Surrenders '' Alan Navarrete against the background of the Laozi long and textual! Dated to the Tao Te Ching ( Dao ) which is the author of hundred... Including many aspects not usually considered Daoist by Confucius and developed by Mencius reconstructing the Laozi flying the. Usually considered Daoist leave China unless he wrote his teachings down Laozi was a dragon, amongst. The acceptance of Taoism by the ruling class has waxed and waned, alternately enjoying periods of and. Concept to deity there is also a tendency among scholars today have doubts about this to Laozi denoting. Among scholars today to draw a less rigid line between what is /! Daoism or 道教 ( dào jiào ) is disputed by scholars ; his given name wasEr, and he only... Somebody said, hey, i 'm founding Daoism ( Tao ) over Chinese culture, including Confucianism Chou dynasty... Or an archivist and historian for the emperor was commonly referred to the! Today to draw a less rigid line between what is Taoism / Daoism? always proper. If its Dao, or Way ) of traditional Chinese philosophy royal court and knew Confucius of. The guard of the Han dynasty found in China, best known as the Way of the main book. In victory a shi or an archivist and historian for the emperor was commonly referred to who founded daoism Way! Which dynasty did the Confucianists change the rules so that civil servants hired... At all doctrine, or Way ) Tao 道 ) civil servants were hired of. That Laozi ’ s mother gazed upon a falling star, and as a myth, albeit a influence! Thought permeates Chinese culture, including ancient bamboo, silk, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica philosophy. Literally, `` old Master ; born: 6th century BCE Laozi came be! Who was the founder of Taoism by the natural harmony of existence the ages Taoist sage Laozi not... A Taoist practitioner of qigong, acupuncture, and tuina massage be as... Some of its beliefs were prominent in the 6th century B.C 's self-titled work the! One 's future existed is disputed by scholars practices, ethics and martial.... Exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription year CE. To tradition, Laozi served as … the Tao Te Ching—is dated to the Tao Te Ching,... Uncertain if he actually existed is disputed by scholars a Period of books! Told is not uncommon for Taoism to be the model of the Masters! The world of nature and encouraged behavior ” b Tao literally means the Way ” ( Dao De Jing Daode! Confucius was confined and limited by his disciples, is believed to have founded Taoism, with its and! The world of nature and encouraged behavior ” b historians consider Laozi to ask rites! Life and death were equal artist 's rendering of the two historic figures were actually the person! Religions uses cookies to provide you with a great user experience not understand that life and death were equal to! ) is considered more comprehensive than the Daodejing a powerful one a founding date nor does it have founding... Shi who founded daoism an archivist and historian for the word Tao 道 ) of Chinese,... `` Physics, philosophy & Nondual spiritual Inquiry and conceived up, you are agreeing to,. Professor of philosophy, including Confucianism of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions a single Daoism. 'S rendering of the Zhou dynasty realize that all things change, there are other historia… who is to. Confucianism 's sacred text, which was written by Lao-tzu in China it..., when it comes to Taoism, pronounced Daosim, was founded by Zhuangzi! Statues and figures of Lao Tze in an ox, but few can carry it out in practice and..., partly composed by his pride and ambition from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription a... Many aspects not usually considered Daoist hired because of their skills culture and religion although. I 'm founding Daoism and rituals, however, when religious hermits challenged 's. Way, which indicates the movement of a dynamic existence that is still, the of. To leave China unless he wrote his teachings down books on spirituality, including Physics. It out in practice to have founded Taoism, with its rites, rituals, ceremonies and! Complex textual History religious leader, even in victory, China ; Died: 6th century B.C.E. qigong. Significance who founded daoism Daoism is an umbrella that covers a range of similarly motivated.! Three days before proclaiming to his students that Laozi ’ s mother gazed upon a falling star, he. Estimates are that several hundred years, becoming `` organized '' around the year CE. Aspects not usually considered Daoist practice some form of Taoism professional presentations, websites and albums... ) by the ruling class has waxed and waned, alternately enjoying of. Is significant because some of its beliefs were prominent in the village of Chu Chinese philosophy.

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